Delphi Survey

An on-line questionnaire (Delphi) survey was conducted with Severn Estuary planning and related stakeholders to inform the development of IMCORE guidelines for climate change coastal adaptation for local planning authorities around the Estuary.

Using a time horizon of 2040, the survey aimed to establish expert and practitioner opinions on how we can move towards a more sustainable planning response for the Estuary in the context of coastal climate change.

Key results:

  • Tthe Town and Country planning system plays a vital role in reducing coastal climate change risk
  • There is a need to:
    • Take a wider, better informed approach
    • Adopt more innovative, integrated and risk-based approaches to planning
    • Joint working
    • Greater community engagement and awareness
    • Prioritise infrastructure protection
    • Resolve tensions between conservation and development
  • Suggested planning tools include:
    • Coastal Change Vulnerability Assessment (for England)
    • The Community Infrastructure Levy
    • Time Limited Consents
    • Article 4 directions and Section 106 agreements
  • Suggested funding sources included:
    • Coastal erosion assistance grants
    • Financial assistance for households and businesses at risk
    • Community Infrastructure Levy
  • Some suggested that financial contributions for beneficiaries to schemes should be a key principle in coastal adaptation economics.


  • Executive Summary
  • Full report


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